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  • 試題題型【閱讀理解 Section A】
試題內容
    When asked by its trainer how old it is, a monkey holds up five fingers.

  The majority of successful senior managers do not closely follow the classical rational model of first clarifying goals, assessing the problem, formulating options, estimating likelihoods of success, making a decision, and only then taking action to implement the decision. Rather, in their day-by-day tactical maneuvers, these senior executives rely on what is vaguely termed “intuition” to manage a network of interrelated problems that require them to deal with ambiguity, inconsistency, novelty, and surprise; and to integrate action into the process of thinking.

  Generations of writers on management have recognized that some practicing managers rely heavily on intuition. In general, however, such writers display a poor grasp of what intuition is. Some see it as the opposite of rationality; others view it as an excuse for capriciousness.

  Isenberg’s recent research on the cognitive processes of senior managers reveals that managers’ intuition is neither of these. Rather, senior managers use intuition in at least five distinct ways. First, they intuitively sense when a problem exists. Second, managers rely on intuition to perform well-learned behavior patterns rapidly. This intuition is not arbitrary or irrational, but is based on years of painstaking practice and hands-on experience that build skills. A third function of intuition is to synthesize isolated bits of data and practice into an integrated picture, often in an “Aha!” experience. Fourth, some managers use intuition as a check on the results of more rational analysis. Most senior executives are familiar with the formal decision analysis models and tools, and those who use such systematic methods for reaching decisions are occasionally leery of solutions suggested by these methods which run counter to their sense of the correct course of action. Finally, managers can use intuition to bypass in-depth analysis and move rapidly to engender a plausible solution. Used in this way, intuition is an almost instantaneous cognitive process in which a manager recognizes familiar patterns.

  One of the implications of the intuitive style of executive management is that “thinking” is inseparable from acting. Since managers often “know” what is right before they can analyze and explain it, they frequently act first and explain later. Analysis is inextricably tied to action in thinking/acting cycles, in which managers develop thoughts about their companies and organizations not by analyzing a problematic situation and then acting, but by acting and analyzing in close concert.

  Given the great uncertainty of many of the management issues that they face, senior managers often instigate a course of action simply to learn more about an issue. They then use the results of the action to develop a more complete understanding of the issue. One implication of thinking/acting cycles is that action is often part of defining the problem, not just of implementing the solution.

1.[單選題]According to the text, senior managers use intuition in all of the following ways EXCEPT to 
  • A.speed up of the creation of a solution to a problem. 
  • B. identify a problem. 
  • C.bring together disparate facts. 
  • D.stipulate clear goals.
  • 解題思路:這是一道歸納推導題。本題題干中的“senior managers”暗示本題的答案信息在第三段,因為第三段首句包含題干中的“senior managers”。通過仔細閱讀和理解本段中所談到的五點,我們可推導出本題的正確選項是選項D。本題選項A、B、C所涉及的內容分別在本段的第五點、第一點和第三點提到。考生在解題時一定要學會認真歸納和總結原文所表達的每一層含義。
2.[單選題]The text suggests which of the following about the “writers on management” mentioned in line 1, paragraph 2?  
  • A. They have criticized managers for not following the classical rational model of decision analysis. 
  • B. They have not based their analyses on a sufficiently large sample of actual managers.  
  • C. They have relied in drawing their conclusions on what managers say rather than on what managers do.
  • D. They have misunderstood how managers use intuition in making business decisions.
  • 解題思路:本題是一道審題定位題。題干中的“who uses intuition to reach decisions”暗示本題的答案信息在第四段,因為第四段首句含有和題干中“who uses intuition to reach decisions”大致相同的“the intuitive style of executive management”。通過仔細閱讀和理解第四段的每一句話,我們可發現第四段的第一句話都在強調“act”(行動),可見本題的正確選項應該是強調行動的選項C。本題的答案信息來源是第四段的第二句話。考生在解題時一定要首先準確地審題定位,然后要善于歸納和理解原文中的中心主旨信息。
3.[單選題]It can be inferred from the text that which of the following would most probably be one major difference in behavior between Manager X, who uses intuition to reach decisions, and Manager Y, who uses only formal decision analysis? 
  • A.Manager X analyzes first and then acts; Manager Y does not.  
  • B.Manager X checks possible solutions to a problem by systematic analysis; Manager Y does not. 
  • C.Manager X takes action in order to arrive at the solution to a problem; Manager Y does not.  
  • D.Manager Y draws on years of hands-on experience in creating a solution to a problem; Manager X does not.
  • 解題思路:本題是一道審題定位題。題干中的“who uses intuition to reach decisions”暗示本題的答案信息在第四段,因為第四段首句含有和題干中“who uses intuition to reach decisions”大致相同的“the intuitive style of executive management”。通過仔細閱讀和理解第四段的每一句話,我們可發現第四段的第一句話都在強調“act”(行動),可見本題的正確選項應該是強調行動的選項C。本題的答案信息來源是第四段的第二句話。考生在解題時一定要首先準確地審題定位,然后要善于歸納和理解原文中的中心主旨信息。
4.[單選題]Which of the following best describes the organization of the first paragraph of the text?  
  • A.An assertion is made and a specific supporting example is given. 
  • B.A conventional model is dismissed and an alternative introduced. 
  • C.The results of recent research are introduced and summarized. 
  • D.Two opposing points of view are presented and evaluated.
  • 解題思路:本題是一道段落結構題。第一句話中的“do not”和第二句句首的“rather”是破解本題的關鍵。抓住這兩個關鍵就可以推導出本題的正確選項應該是B。考生在解題時一定要注意表示否定的詞語以及表示啟承轉合的詞語,更要注意句子之間的相互關系。
5.[單選題]The text provides support for which of the following statements?  
  • A. Managers who rely on intuition are more successful than those who rely on formal decision analysis. 
  • B. Managers cannot justify their intuitive decisions.  
  • C. Managers’ intuition works contrary to their rational and analytical skills.  
  • D. Intuition enables managers to employ their practical experience more efficiently.
  • 解題思路:本題是一道審題定位題。題干中并沒有明確指出本題答案信息在原文的準確位置。在這種情況下,考生往往迷失解題思路。在考生迷失解題思路時一定要牢記全文中心主旨,并且抓住各段的核心句。本文的中心主旨句在第一段的尾句。如果考生能夠抓住第一段的尾句,并結合第三段的第四、五句,就可以推導出本題的正確選項應該是D。考生在解題時,尤其是在迷失解題思路時,一定要首先抓全文的中心主旨句,同時還要抓一些明確表示啟承轉合關系的句子結構。
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  • 參考答案:D,C,C,B,D
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